Excellente vidéo de tous les facteurs cosmologiques qui influent sur le climat de la planète. Mais les périodes de temps en jeu sont hors de proportion avec la durée de vie de notre espèce Homo.Sapiens.sapiens.
Plate Tectonics and the Hawaiian Hot Spot
Republished from Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes - Past, Present, and Future
by Robert Tilling, Christina Heliker, and Donald Swanson
U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 117.
Pacific Basin Map
Pacific Basin Map: Map of the Pacific Basin showing the location of the Hawaiian Ridge-Emperor Seamount Chain and the Aleutian Trench. Base map from "This Dynamic Planet."
Origin of the Hawaiian Islands
The Hawaiian Islands are the tops of gigantic volcanic mountains formed by countless eruptions of fluid lava over several million years; some tower more than 30,000 feet above the seafloor. These volcanic peaks rising above the ocean surface represent only the tiny, visible part of an immense submarine ridge, the Hawaiian Ridge—Emperor Seamount Chain, composed of more than 80 large volcanoes.
For this discussion, the assumptions and ideas of plate tectonics are used unchallenged to show their internal problems regarding mountain building (orogeny). Quotes are from professional journals.
What drives the plates?
Study of the motions of plates is called kinematics, while study of the driving forces is called dynamics. "A key to the simplicity of plate tectonics is that the strength of lithospheric plates enables the analysis of their kinematics to be isolated and treated separately from the dynamic processes controlling plate motions; relative velocities of plates can be analysed without reference to the forces that give rise to them"34.
More on this topic.
Histoire géologique de la distribution spatiale de l'hydrosphère et de la lithosphère de la planète; dérive des continents et variations climatiques; un site passionnant dû au géologue Christopher Scotese.
The study, “World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment”, performed by Advanced Resources International (ARI) with sponsorship of the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), targeted 95 shale basins and 137 shale formations in 41 countries (excluding the U.S.). For purposes of completeness, we have also provided information from ARI’s proprietary data base of U.S. shale gas and shale oil resources.
The use of horizontal drilling in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing has greatly expanded the ability of producers to profitably produce natural gas from low permeability geologic formations, particularly shale formations. Application of fracturing techniques to stimulate oil and gas production began to grow rapidly in the 1950s, although experimentation dates back to the 19th century.
Oil shale is commonly defined as a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing organic matter that yields substantial amounts of oil and combustible gas upon destructive distillation. Most of the organic matter is insoluble in ordinary organic solvents; therefore, it must be decomposed by heating to release such materials. Underlying most definitions of oil shale is its potential for the economic recovery of energy, including shale oil and combustible gas, as well as a number of byproducts. A deposit of oil shale having economic potential is generally one that is at or near enough to the surface to be developed by open-pit or conventional underground mining or by in-situ methods.
Une avancée dans la compréhension de la structure du charbon; à partir de coupes microscopiques:
If you think that coal is a boring black rock then you have never seen it through a transmitted light microscope. The microscope reveals coal's hidden beauty as well as its composition. Coal seams form from thick accumulations of plant debris, usually deposited in a swamp. The tiny particles of plant debris and swamp sediment give a spectacular show when viewed through the microscope. Well preserved woody material is bright red, spores are brilliant yellow, algal material is yellow-orange, charcoal and opaque minerals are black, and grains of many transparent minerals are white. It's hard to believe that coal can be so colorful!
The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology. Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the Earth. Throughout the ages geology provides essential theories and data that shape how society conceptualizes the Earth.